What is urology?


Urology is the branch that is responsible for examining everything from anatomy and physiology to the pathogenesis of diseases and the medical-surgical treatment of the urinary (urinary tract) and genital systems in men and women.


The diseases that urology treats are related to the following organs and structures: adrenal gland kidney (morphological and obstructive aspects), ureters in the retroperitoneum and lumbar region, bladder and seminal way of the prostate, the urethra, pelvic floor structures, the penis, scrotum, testicles, and epididymis. The treatment can be done using different types of drugs, open, laparoscopic, or endoscopic surgeries, or radiological methods.


When should I apply to urology department?


Urological problems are extremely important. The person should take the symptoms seriously by considering his/her future life, and if he/she sees one or more of the following symptoms, he/she should see a urologist. Common symptoms:


  • Frequent urination
  • Urinary incontinence or difficulty during urination
  • Pain or burning when urinating
  • Blood or other discharges in the urine
  • Fever, chills, back or lower abdomen pain
  • Pain in the genitals


Prostate surgeries:


Prostatectomy: It is the most commonly used, oldest, and gold standard surgical method for benign prostatic enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia-BPH).


Plasma Kinetic TUR Prostatectomy: It is the most up-to-date and advanced technique of the classical TUR-prostatectomy method used in benign prostate enlargement today. This method is also considered within gold standard.


Open Prostate Surgery: It covers open surgery techniques in prostate cancer. They are divided into three groups: open surgery, laparoscopic surgery, and robotic surgery.


What Diseases Does Urology Treat?


Infections of the Urinary Tract


They can be classified in various ways according to the presence or absence of symptoms. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in the urine without symptoms, that is without systemic symptoms such as fever, malaise, or pain or burning during urination.


A symptomatic urinary tract infection has varying symptoms such as pain or burning on urination, frequent urination, urinary tenesmus (painful feeling of urination or defecation seen in inflammatory conditions of the rectum or bladder), and fever-flank pain.


Urinary tract infections are further classified as upper urinary tract infections (kidney and ureter) and lower urinary tract infections (acute cystitis, acute or chronic bacterial prostatitis, urethritis) based on their anatomical location.


A urinary tract infection involving the kidneys is called acute pyelonephritis and is the most dangerous of urinary tract infections. It progresses with fever, flank pain, and weakness. If left untreated, it can result in kidney loss. In diabetic or immunocompromised patients, it can cause sepsis and be life-threatening.


Urinary Incontinence


Urinary incontinence includes all situations in which urine is triggered to leave the body involuntarily. Although it can be seen in both men and women, it is more common in women than in men. It is a condition that seriously impairs quality of life. Its incidence increases with age, and therefore, unfortunately, it can be perceived by patients as a natural result of aging. However, urinary incontinence is not a natural consequence of ageing and can be treated. There are multiple types of urinary incontinence, each with different causes and treatments. Urinary incontinence due to a sudden feeling of urgency that cannot be avoided by the patient and the inability to reach the toilet is one of the most common types of urinary incontinence. The urge is called urinary incontinence. Treatment is mostly with drugs that relax the bladder muscle and increase the bladder's capacity. Incontinence while coughing, laughing, sneezing, or running is called stress urinary incontinence. Surgical methods are often required for its treatment.


Male Infertility


Infertility is the inability to achieve pregnancy, regardless of the cause, one year after having sexual intercourse. It affects about 10-15 percent of couples in the reproductive period. Infertile men may have deficiencies in sperm formation, concentration, or transport.




The prostate is a chestnut-sized gland that is found only in men and surrounds the urethra at the exit of the bladder. The most common prostate disease is benign prostatic enlargement or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The prostate enlarges with age in every man, and sometimes this enlargement causes obstruction of the urinary tract, making it difficult for urine to pass out of the bladder. It can cause complaints such as getting up to urinate at night, frequent urination, weakening of the urine flow, cuts, chewing, squeezing, and urinary incontinence. It can even cause kidney loss if not treated in time. Prostatitis is prostate gland inflammation. It can cause fever and difficulty urinating. Prostate cancer refers to cancer of the prostate gland. Early diagnosis saves lives. For men with a family history of prostate cancer, a routine annual prostate examination is required after age 50.


Oncological Urology


It is the branch of urology that deals with the study and diagnosis of tumours in the urinary system. It focuses on the treatment of patients who have prostate, kidney, testicular, or bladder cancer.


Symptoms of prostate cancer:


In the early stages of prostate cancer, there are no symptoms. However, as the cancer progresses, the following symptoms occur:


  • Dysuria (pain or burning when urinating)
  • Pain in the lumbar region of the back
  • Hematuria (bloody urine)
  • Cachexia (excessive weight loss, decrease in subcutaneous adipose tissue, decrease in muscle mass, even shrinkage of internal organs, changes in the skin, hair loss)


Symptoms of Kidney Cancer:


Kidney cancer also does not show symptoms in the early stages. As the disease progresses, the following symptoms appear:


  • Flank pain
  • Haematuria
  • Weight loss
  • Fever
  • Arterial Hypertension
  • Hyperkalemia (higher than normal potassium level in the blood)
  • Night Sweats


Bladder Cancer Symptoms:


Bladder cancer is more common in men than women, and smoking is the most important known risk factor.


  • Hematuria (blood in the urine) is the most common symptom of bladder cancer.
  • This can sometimes be seen as visible microscopic bleeding. In particular, painless macroscopic hematuria with clots suggests bladder cancer. It can also take the form of microscopic hematuria bleeding, which is not visible to the naked eye but is detected in urinalysis.
  • Irritating bladder symptoms such as dysuria, urinary urgency, and increased urinary frequency
  • Pelvic or bone pain, lower extremity edema, or flank pain (patients with advanced disease)
  • Palpable mass on physical examination (patients with advanced disease)

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