Hematologic means blood science.Its main subject is blood diseases. Blood is a liquid tissue.This tissue consists of the liquid tissue that circulates through our veins and contains red blood cells, leukocytes, thrombocytes, and of the blood marrow tissue of which blood is made.Red blood cells in the blood carry oxygen to tissues, and leukocytes fight against germs. Lymphocytes, a branch of leukocytes, form our immune system. In case of injuries, the cells called thrombocytes are the first to stop bleeding.
Blood diseases involve the deficiency or malformation or cancerousness of these cells. Also the clotting of the blood circulating in our veins in case of an injury is a chain of reactions triggered by various proteins in the blood. Hematology also deals with the bleeding or clotting disorders which occur due to an imbalance between the mechanisms that keep blood in liquid form and the mechanisms that make it clot.
Thus, hematology covers the problems of anemia, immune deficiency, bleeding, diseases that cause intravascular clot formation, leukemia, lymph node disease, lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, lymphatic system cancers such as multiple myeloma, and other disorders of the blood caused by other diseases.
A hematologist, after graduating from medical school, receives internal diseases education, and then receives 4 years of hematology education to become a hematologist.Therefore a hematologist, is also an internal diseases specialist.
Complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, a variety of biochemical tests, measurement of vitamins, minerals and hormones used in the production of blood, examination of bone marrow with aspiration and biopsy method, various genetic tests in bone marrow and blood, chromosome analysis, immunological tests, tests to measure bleeding and clotting, and various imaging modalities are used to diagnose hematologic diseases.
The treatment as well as the diagnosis of hematological diseases is important.Various vitamins and minerals used in blood production, chemotherapy, blood transfusions, various medications to prevent bleeding and clotting are used for this purpose.
Of course, the treatment of symptoms and diseases causing hematological disorders is one of the first tasks.